更高的产量和环保意识-BreatheLife2030
网络更新/秘鲁/ 2020-10-08

更高的产量和环境意识:
秘鲁农民采用免烧和保护性农业

Manolo Rojas开始使用保护性农业,因为他担心这个星球。 But when his yields started to increase in quality and quantity, the farmers around him started paying attention.但是当他的产量开始提高质量和数量时,他周围的农民开始关注他。

秘鲁
形状 创建了素描。
阅读时间: 5 分钟

Two years ago, Manolo Rojas was prepping his fields to plant green peas on his farm in Huayao in central Peru the way he always did, by burning the debris from the previous crop and tilling the soil.两年前,马诺洛·罗哈斯(Manolo Rojas)正在燃烧他以前的农作物中的残渣,耕种土壤,准备像往常一样在他位于秘鲁中部华耀的农场种豌豆。 When a technician from humanitarian organization CARE International approached him to say that he'd have better results if he didn't do either of those things, he was sceptical.当来自人道主义组织CARE International的技术人员找他说如果他不做任何一件事情都会有更好的结果,他对此表示怀疑。

“这似乎是不合逻辑的,”罗哈斯说。 After all, it was how farmers around the world turned their fields over between growing seasons.毕竟,这是世界各地农民在不同的生长季节之间转换田地的方式。 But Rojas had started seeing rocks on the surface of his fields which he knew meant he was losing topsoil, the nutrient-rich upper layer necessary for a robust harvest.但是罗哈斯(Rojas)开始在他的田地表面看到岩石,他知道这意味着他正在失去表土,这是丰收的必要营养丰富的上层。 He had also started to worry more about climate change so when the technician told him that他还开始担心气候变化,所以当技术人员告诉他 开放式农业燃烧 占了三分之一以上 黑炭排放他是一种短暂的气候污染物,可导致空气污染,气候变化和冰冻圈(冰雪区域)融化增加,引起了他的兴趣。

Manolo Rojas(左)与保护农业专家Ademir Calegari

“因此,我决定给这个技术人员一个机会并尝试一下。”

It's been two years and Rojas is staggered by the difference it has made on his farm and in his life.已经两年了,Rojas对其农场和生活所产生的变化感到震惊。 Not only are the rocks gone but he's starting to see earthworms and other insects again in the now rich and dark soil where he plants corn, carrots, and other vegetables.不仅岩石消失了,他还开始在如今丰富而黑暗的土壤中再次看到earth和其他昆虫,在那里他种玉米,胡萝卜和其他蔬菜。 Better yet, his yields are either the same or even higher than before.更好的是,他的收益与以前相同或什至更高。 Not since he met his wife in college and moved to her hometown to start farming has he seen the soil this healthy.自从他在大学遇到妻子并搬到她的家乡开始耕种以来,他还没有看到土壤如此健康。

“我之所以致力于这个项目,是因为我担心气候变化以及我们面临的所有气候问题。 I know that if we don't take care of the environment we'll be facing lower yields and lower production in the future.我知道,如果我们不关心环境,将来我们将面临更低的产量和更低的产量。 Now that I've done it I realize that it's also boosted production and I'm so happy about that.”现在,我已经做到了,我意识到它也提高了产量,对此我感到非常高兴。”

罗哈斯所汲取的教训是实施的项目的一部分 秘鲁护理 在国际协调下 国际冰冻圈气候倡议(ICCI) 通过培训和考察旅行帮助农民了解保护性农业。

我知道,如果我们不关心环境,将来我们将面临更低的产量和更低的产量。

马诺洛·罗哈斯(Manolo Rojas)

保护农业农民,秘鲁。

气候与清洁空气联盟(CCAC)农业计划 supports regional networks and projects that facilitate the adoption of open burning alternatives.支持促进采用露天焚烧替代品的区域网络和项目。 Implementing these “no burn” methods could cut global black carbon emissions by half, while simultaneously providing economic and social benefits for farmers like Rojas.实施这些“不燃烧”方法可以将全球黑碳排放量减少一半,同时为罗哈斯(Rojas)等农民提供经济和社会效益。

自2014年以来,CCAC与ICCI合作,通过以下方式与当地合作伙伴共同解决了这一问题: 秘鲁和印度的示范项目.

在秘鲁,该示范项目是在秘鲁援外社(CARE Peru)的支持下实施的。 国家农业创新研究所 秘鲁

Conservation agriculture is picking up around the world, spurred on by successes of farmers like Rojas who have participated in these kinds of projects.在参与了此类项目的罗哈斯(Rojas)等农民的成功推动下,保护性农业正在全球范围内兴起。 In fact, it is replacing conventional tillage agriculture at实际上,它正在取代传统的耕作农业 每年有10万公顷的农田.

(照片:Odon Zelarayan)

The practice involves zero or very minimal mechanical disturbance through a practice called no-till seeding.该实践通过称为免耕播种的实践涉及零或非常小的机械干扰。 Instead of burning the crop residue to clear the way for the next planting season, it is retained and used as soil mulch cover which helps it retain moisture making it healthier and less likely to erode.可以将其保留下来并用作土壤覆盖物,而不是燃烧作物残渣来为下一个种植季节扫清道路,这有助于保持水分,使其更健康,更不会受到侵蚀。 It also uses crop rotation to optimize soil nutrients and combat pests and weeds.它还利用作物轮作来优化土壤养分并防治害虫和杂草。 Not only does conservation agriculture generally result in increased yields, it also makes crops more resilient to extreme events, making it a potential climate change adaptation strategy.保护性农业不仅普遍提高了单产,还使农作物对极端事件的抵抗力增强,使其成为适应气候变化的潜在策略。

Open burning, which is defined as all intentional burning in the agricultural sector but excludes prescribed burns on wildlands, isn't something only Peruvian farmers do.露天焚烧被定义为农业部门中的所有故意焚烧,但不包括野外规定的焚烧,这不是秘鲁农民所做的。 It's widely practiced around the world as a cheap and fast way to remove the excess agricultural straw from previous crops.它是一种廉价,快速的方法,可以从以前的农作物中去除多余的农作物秸秆,在世界范围内得到了广泛的实践。 There's a misconception that burning helps fertilize the soil but it actually strips it of nutrients by destroying organic matter.有一个误解,认为燃烧有助于土壤肥沃,但实际上它通过破坏有机物质而剥夺了养分。 This means farmers spend more money adding fertilizer to maintain their crop yields.这意味着农民要花更多的钱添加肥料以维持其作物产量。 By using conservation agriculture farmers通过使用保护性农业农民 例如可以在头两年内将小麦产量提高10%.

在印度,露天焚烧是一个巨大的问题, 廉政公署也在采取多管齐下的做法来消除这种做法包括对农民进行教育,并帮助他们使用替代品,使用卫星监控火灾和跟踪其影响,帮助将农业残茬从废物变成资源,并支持政策干预措施,例如燃烧法规或为更好的农业设备提供农业补贴。

(照片:Odon Zelarayan)

“在我焚烧之前,我一直在污染环境,如今我没有这样做,对此我感到非常高兴。”

“我得到的产品质量更高,水果和蔬菜的重量更大,味道更好。 I sell my products for human consumption, so that really matters.”我出售自己的产品供人类消费,所以这确实很重要。”

Rojas says he and his wife have also benefited from the time they've saved, time that they can now spend with their son who just finished law school.罗哈斯说,他和他的妻子也从他们节省的时间中受益,他们现在可以花时间与刚刚完成法学的儿子在一起。 There are also financial rewards.也有经济奖励。 Rojas estimates he's saved $200 per hectare per year since he's adopted conservation agriculture techniques because it's easier to prepare the field for planting.罗哈斯估计,自从他采用保护性农业技术以来,每年每公顷节省50美元,因为它更容易为播种做准备。 Conservation agriculture saves money from tillage and irrigation by reducing the frequency with which they're needed.保护性农业通过减少耕作和灌溉的频率来节省资金。 Farmers also save money on manual labour, fuel, and fertilizer by up to a net of XNUMX percent.农民还节省了多达XNUMX%的净人工,燃料和化肥费用。

Rojas wasn't alone, the project has had impressive success rates, in part because farmers like Rojas provide leadership and stellar examples of the ways in which conservation agriculture can improve conditions for the farmers and for the planet.罗哈斯并不孤单,该项目取得了令人印象深刻的成功率,部分原因是像罗哈斯这样的农民在保护性农业可以改善农民和地球环境的方式方面提供了领导才能和出色的例子。 Of the 32 farmers who participated in the training, 23 do not burn anymore.在参加培训的XNUMX位农民中,有XNUMX位不再燃烧。 Yields of both green peas and maize increased as a result of the new farming practice.由于新的耕作方式,豌豆和玉米的单产都增加了。

罗哈斯说:“我是一个人开始,但我想领导其他人继续改变。”

Farmers examine a plot of broad beans on a study tour.农民在考察游中检查了一块蚕豆。 Acobamba, Peru (Photo: Odon Zelarayan)秘鲁阿波班巴(照片:Odon Zelarayan)

“我认为在整个项目中,我在Manolo和其他农民中看到的最重要的变化就是他们的思维方式变化,” ICCI安第斯山脉露天燃烧协调员Juliana Albertengo说。 “他们已经开放思想,并且学会了系统地思考。 Instead of thinking in terms of individual crops, they've learned to see everything as a system which includes both their economic issues and also the climate.”他们已经学会了将所有事物视为一个既包括经济问题又包括气候的系统,而不是从单个作物的角度思考。”

There's another environmental benefit from the method, it also helps save water.该方法还有另一个环境效益,它也有助于节水。 Rojas says he used to irrigate his crops every 10-15 days but now they can go much longer because the soil retains moisture better because the crop residue covers it.罗哈斯说,他以前每XNUMX-XNUMX天要灌溉一次农作物,但现在由于土壤残留物覆盖土壤,土壤能更好地保持水分,因此可以长得多的时间。

“水在这里是一种有限的资源,这些资源正在消失。 So we know we need to take care of the resources we have,” he said.因此,我们知道我们需要照顾到我们拥有的资源,”他说。

This is particularly important where Rojas is from, given that the Huaytapallana glacier is the main source of water supply for Huancayo.考虑到Huaytapallana冰川是Huant的主要水源,这对Rojas尤为重要。 Over the past 20 years, the glacier's snow area has been reduced by 50 percent, devastating given that it provides 40 percent of the water for a river that is a main source of drinking water.在过去的XNUMX年中,冰川的降雪面积减少了XNUMX%,这是毁灭性的,因为它为一条河流提供了XNUMX%的水,而河流是饮用水的主要来源。 Black carbon from open agricultural burning is a major factor in glacier degradation as black carbon particles settle on snow and ice and reduce surface albedo, or the ability to reflect sun.露天农业燃烧产生的黑碳是冰川退化的主要因素,因为黑碳颗粒沉积在雪和冰上并减少了地表反照率或反射太阳的能力。

“我们将过世,如果如今不采取任何行动,我们将把问题留给我们的孩子,因此我们需要关心未来。 That's the most important thing.”那是最重要的。”

从CCAC交叉张贴